Definition and Typologies
Our definition: Journalism crowdsourcing is the act of specifically inviting a group of people to participate in a reporting task—such as newsgathering, data collection, or analysis—through a targeted, open call for input; personal experiences; documents; or other contributions.
Using that definition, most crowdsourcing generally takes two forms:
- An unstructured call-out, which is an open invitation to vote, email, call, or otherwise contact a journalist with information.
- A structured call-out, which engages in targeted outreach to ask people to respond to a specific request. Responses can enter a newsroom via multiple channels, including email, SMS, a website, or Google form. Often, they are captured in a searchable database.
We argue that crowdsourcing requires a specific call-out. If a newsroom simply harvests information or content available on the social web, we don’t believe this constitutes crowdsourcing. For us, the people engaging in crowdsourcing need to feel they have agency in contributing to a news story.
We acknowledge that crowdsourcing efforts don’t fit neatly into discrete classification, but for the purpose of this report, we’ve organized our typologies into six different calls to action:
- Voting—prioritizing which stories reporters should tackle.
- Witnessing—sharing what you saw during a news event.
- Sharing personal experiences—telling what you know about your life experience.
- Tapping specialized expertise—contributing data or unique knowledge.
- Completing a task—volunteering time or skills to help create a news story.
- Engaging audiences—joining in call-outs that can range from informative to playful.
- The rise of crowdsourcing correlates with the rise of the Internet and web technologies that have made it easier for journalists to identify and cultivate communities; organize data; and follow real-time, breaking-news developments.
- Crowdsourcing leaders, like The Guardianand ProPublica, believe in the practice and integrate it thoroughly.
- Some stories involving specialized data or unique personal experiences can be told only via crowdsourcing.
- Crowdsourcing allows newsrooms to build audience entry points at every stage of the journalistic process—from story assigning, to pre-data collection, to data mining, to sharing specialized expertise, to collecting personal experiences and continuing post-story conversations.
- News organizations are taking different paths toward audience growth and engagement. Some are focusing on crowdsourcing; others are interested in mining non-solicited citizen contributions through social media.
- Good crowdsourcing efforts are high-touch, labor-intensive efforts. Journalists must determine a type of call-out, the communities to target, the method for collecting responses, and the avenues for connecting and giving back to the community of contributors.
- News organizations must demonstrate active engagement and reward the community during the crowdsourcing process, by actively participating in comments or updating contributors on a story’s progress, to encourage more contributions.
- Some organizations have created additional venues, such as Facebook Groups, to continue the conversation.
- Tension exists in some news organizations around whether crowdsourced contributions are trustworthy. Experienced practitioners say this is not a problem.
- For digital-first startups, in particular, crowdsourcing provides a way to cultivate new audiences from scratch and produce unique journalism.
- Some news organizations are situating crowdsourcing out of newsrooms and within communities.
- Several crowdsourcing ventures are turning into bona fide businesses, offering B2B (business-to-business) crowdsourcing solutions to media companies.
- News consumers clearly have stories to share, but they don’t necessarily want to write the news.
- Ways of measuring the impact of engaging in crowdsourcing initiatives and analyzing its value to a newsroom are still in development. Such measures have not been institutionalized.
The research shows that crowdsourcing is credited with helping to create amazing acts of journalism. It has transformed newsgathering by introducing unprecedented opportunities for attracting sources with new voices and information, allowed news organizations to unlock stories that otherwise might not have surfaced, and created opportunities for news organizations to experiment with the possibilities of engagement just for the fun of it.
In short, it has done just what the pundits predicted a decade ago: helped turn journalism into more of a conversation, rather than a one-way megaphone.
Crowdsourcing also deserves credit for shaping journalism into more of an iterative process: as data or stories come in from contributors, reporters see new possibilities for their journalism—and news organizations see opportunities to incrementally publish those contributions in ways that tease out more.
Certainly, though, crowdsourcing can be high-touch and high-energy, and not all projects work the first time.
By Walter Balane, Armando Fenequito, Rey Garcia and Julie Jubelag/Aspire 5 News
SINAYAWAN, Valencia City – Francisco Matulac never got tired. At 68, he still farms rice like he did in 30 years. His neighbors would always see him as an able-bodied old man. He never runs out of anything to fix. Work in the farm and the household make him happy.
But not on this particular cropping season. In a backyard shed are 50 bags of organic fertilizers he bought but cannot use. For the past days, he has been cursing about it. He and the 38 members of the Lateral G-7 Bayanihan Irrigators Association here were unable to plant rice due to lack of water. Bukidnon, initially not in the forecast, is among the 32 provinces affected by the El Niño.
He knew they cannot blame it all on the weather. The other problem, Matulac added, is that the government did not act swiftly to help farmers prepare for the dry spell.
“Wala na gani ulan, manhid pagihapon kaayo ang NIA (National Irrigation Administration) sa ilang mahal nga irrigation fee (While we have no rains, the National Irrigation Administration refuses to waive irrigation fees),” he said.
Bobo Narciso, head of the Abag Kalambuan (Support Development) peoples’ organization, one of the biggest associations of farmers in southern Bukidnon, said the concerns of small farmers like Matulac should be at the core of the 2016 national election candidates’ agenda for Mindanao – considered the country’s food basket.
“The problem is they are giving us motherhood statements about their plans,” he added in a telephone interview Thursday night.
Narciso cited the promises of presidential candidates to work for an increase of the budget for Mindanao to boost agriculture and the economy of the region as a whole.
During the presidential debate in Cagayan de Oro on February 21, Sen. Grace Poe and Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte spoke of the need to increase the budget share, which at present is P380.9 billion or 22.2 percent of the P3 trillion national budget in 2016.[VIEW INFO-GRAPHICS: Regional Share of Mindanao’s P380.9 billion budget (Source: MinDA)
“The electorate should push for the candidates to cite concrete examples. The devil is in the details,” he said.
Narciso speaks to farmers in a forum in Don Carlos, Bukidnon, Philippines
Narciso’s FB Account
Narciso said they wanted to check if candidates are with them on specific concerns.
Farmers feared the unknown about their fate in the economic integration brought by the ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations), he said. He explained that with zero tariff on agricultural products, among others, they cannot compete without sufficient and appropriate government support.
“We need price subsidies for major farming inputs such as fertilizer. We want to decrease irrigation service fees, among others. Are they in favor of that?” he asked.
He said pushing for an increase in the budget for Mindanao is not enough. The candidates should also reveal how they will use the budget, he added.
“If we have an increased budget, well and good. But if they will just use it to build airports and seaports in the urban centers, then it doesn’t directly help ,” he said.
Farmers in Mindanao needed more and longer farm to market roads, post harvest facilities, cold storage and other facilities.
“Is their bigger budget for Mindanao going to agriculture and is it intended for the small farmers or for the multinational corporations?” he asked.
Except for Senator Miriam Santiago, all four other presidential candidates, Vice President Jejomar Binay, Duterte, Poe and Manuel Roxas III have expressed more than one specific programs on agriculture as of February 25, based on an online research by Aspire 5 News.
All the four, except Roxas, pronounced making irrigation available for free. [VIEW INFO-GRAPHICS: The Presidential Bets and their Agriculture Agenda]
According to gov.ph, the over-all budget for the Department of Agriculture for the country in 2016 is at P93.4 billion. This is nothing compared to the budget of the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) at P766.5 billion with about P268.4 billion intended to pave all national roads by 2016 and construct access roads to airports, seaports, and tourist destinations.
In North Cotabato, the farmers’ group Kilusang Magbubukid ng Pilipinas (KMP) said the additional budget increase will not help the plight of the farmers.
Jerry Alborme, KMP spokesperson told Aspire 5 News via telephone the farmers are always left behind in the budget even this year with a 25.7 percent increase or about P78 billion additional allocation for Mindanao.
“Wala man gyud na (nila) matilawi sukad pa na sa una (They have never experienced any development),” he said.
Alborme said that until now farmers still face woes like lack of water system and farming assistance. LISTEN TO THE INTERVIEW : Jerry Alborme, KMP-North Cotabato
“Kanunay gyud naga krisis ang kinabuhi sa mga mag-uuma nga mao man unta ang nagahimo og mga produkto sa atong nasod (The life of of the farmers are always in crisis even if they are the ones who made the food products),” he said.
Most farmers have been buried in debts especially that the province has experienced dry spell.
“Here in North Cotabato, the only response of our government is the P4 million cloud seeding,” he added.
Alborme said for the farmers, the dry spell is just a secondary concern.
The primary disaster, he added, is that their farm products are bought at a cheap price (in the market).
Romeo Montenegro, director for investments and public affairs of the Mindanao Development Authority (MinDA), in a telephone interview said the issues raised by the farmers are valid.
But he clarified that while it appeared that the budget for farm to market roads is smaller compared to the budget for highways, airports, and seaports it doesn’t mean small farmers were neglected.
He said the cost of building airports and seaports is always higher than how much it would to build farm to market roads.
Montenegro said increasing the budget for Mindanao has always been the goal. But it should be viewed at per capita share. He argued that Mindanao’s per capita share of the budget is now higher compared to those of Luzon and the Visayas.
“(This means Mindanao residents are better off compared to years ago),” he added. As of midnight, Montenegro was unable to send a copy of the report showing the per capita figures.
The farmers are worried about another thing.
Alborme from KMU’s North Cotabato chapter said any additional budget might be diverted.
“It has been a tradition of our politics in the country that the candidate of the administration will use it to buy votes,” he said.
Armida Pajaron, a community officer of a non-government organization supporting farmers in Valencia City said agriculture is one of the sectors prone to corruption.
“I observed that most budgets for farmers implemented by DA (Department of Agriculture) go to whoever is close to their heart,” she added.
A farmer in Dabongdabong, Valencia City inspects a rice stalk
Photo courtesy of Masipag Mindanao
At the time it reaches the farm level, she said, it has already gone through a lot of cuts. She said the government should address this problem.
“You can have a big budget on paper high above, but it doesn’t mean that intended recipients at the grassroots get it all,” she said in the vernacular.
Some of DA’s projects on fertilizer and seed subsidies became controversial. VIEW RELATED STORY: DA investigators find irregularities in P30M NIA organic fertilizer project.
Alborme said that the government should provide assistance to farmers for fertilizers and seedlings, especially in times of calamity.
The farmers, he said, are always short of money because calamities damaged their crops.
He urged that the next national government officials should pass the Genuine Agrarian Reform Bill into law to address the issue of land distribution, one of the major factors of production.
Alborme said he also urged other farmer groups to exert pressure on Congress to pass the bill.
The problem with Congress, he added, is some of their members are also big landlords.
Abag Kalambuan’s Narciso said farmers want their government to listen to their needs.
“They can’t make plans addressing poverty and development here if the government don’t come and talk to us,” he said.
Bukidnon and North Cotabato were two of the 16 poorest provinces in the country in 2014.
Francisco Matulac, the farmer from Sinayawan, Valencia City, is cursing as he covered his bags of fertilizers with tarp late that afternoon.
He said it’s the government who earned his ire for its failure to act on the farmers’ needs.
“The El Nino is bad for us, but their slow response is the worse disaster,” Matulac said. (Walter Balane, Armando Fenequito, Rey Garcia and Julie Jubelag/Aspire 5 News)
Click on the link below to download the word file on the learning guides of the two modules. Chapter 10 and 11 Learning Guide (Money and Output determination; International Trade and Exchange Rates) Econ 102 BC 501 Midterm results student number. Please post a comment here, with your name if you have already read and downloaded the files. Thanks. Best, Walter I. Balane
A personal essay
(A Personal Essay)
It’s still a world of instant coffee.
A friend from academia dropped a message in my inbox to ask for an online chat via Yahoo Messenger or Google Chat. I was surprised since the last contact we made was two years ago in a UP e-group.
He said as a journalist I could give him a quick explanation about Mindanao, its indigenous peoples, the issue of ancestral domain, the Mindanao conflict, why some IPs oppose mining, and also the peace process. He was trying to prepare a primer on Mindanao.
I knew it was an overview paper. It was an ambitious overview paper. It is doable I’m sure. I find preparing a primer on Mindanao, however, out of synch and possibly a waste of time. Such primer could be for anyone rushing. But I think one shouldn’t rush any attempt to understand Mindanao.
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Musings of a participant
The formal sessions of the 4th Mindanao Media Summit just concluded early afternoon today, 09 August 2008.
The theme: “Mindanao 2020: The vision begins with us”, is placed in an imposing tarp at the back draft. It was a reminder to me as a member of the group who took on “drafting” the vision from the participants. “Where are the other members of the styling committee?” I asked myself.
I ate a late breakfast today as I stayed late for my recent attempt to write a narrative report. So when I entered the summit hall, I have to do some catching up on who did what the night before.
I caught up on the secretariat who were busy calling the rest of the group for the picture taking.
Meanwhile, I picked the shiniest plate on the buffet table and proceeded to feast on hotel breakfast. In my peripheral vision and…
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I found this from elsewhere … I was surprised I wrote this years ago.
I’m referring to someone who I doubt could be familiar to anyone here in blogosphere. I virtually met this 24-year old Tboli today from Brgy, New La Union in Maitum, Sarangani Province.
The Sarangani Information Office sent a press release, which our news organization used in this story.
Tom isn’t Mark Twain’s adventurous Sawyer kid of-all-time. Tom is Tom Balatac, the 24-year old Grade 1 student of Kipalkuda Elementary School in Maitum.
I commend Tom for the courage of going against social persecution, perhaps, of coming to school much later. It is one brave act that sends a wonderful message to those who have access to quality education but did not value the opportunity as of now.
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